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Neurochem Int. 2013 Apr;62(5):803-19. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2012.12.016. Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress: co-conspirators in the pathology of Parkinson's disease.

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Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disease, with genetics and environment contributing to the disease onset. Recent studies of causative PD genes have confirmed the involvement of cellular mechanisms engaged in mitochondrial and UPS dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis in the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in PD. In addition, clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence has implicated neuroinflammation in the disease progression. This review will discuss neuroinflammation in PD, with particular focus on the genetic and toxin-based models of the disease. These studies have confirmed elevated oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory response occurs early in the disease and these processes contribute to and/or exacerbate the nigro-striatal degeneration. In addition, the experimental models discussed here have also provided strong evidence that these pathways are an important link between the familial and sporadic causes of PD. The potential application of anti-inflammatory interventions in limiting the dopaminergic neuronal cell death in these models is discussed with evidence suggesting that the further investigation of their use as part of multi-targeted clinical trials is warranted.

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