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Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;13(2):192-9. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2012.12.001. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

Risk factors for atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease: recognition and management.

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Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA.


Heart disease is the most common cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in those receiving dialysis. Atherosclerosic cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) accounts for a large number of these deaths. Atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with CKD due predominantly to the high prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors in the CKD population. CKD aggravates pre-existent traditional risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia due to secondary renal parenchymal hypertension and secondary dyslipidemia. In addition, a variety of non-traditional risk factors that occur commonly in CKD patients contribute to CV risk. Recent studies suggest that CKD itself may be an independent risk factor for CVD, particularly coronary heart disease (CHD). Many therapies aimed at CV risk factor modification that have been successful in reducing CV risk in the general population are less effective or ineffective in favorably modifying CV risk in CKD.

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