Send to

Choose Destination
J Pediatr. 2013 May;162(5):924-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.037. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

Indices of insulin secretion during a liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with diabetes.

Author information

Division of Weight Management and Wellness, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.



To compare indices of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity (IS), and oral disposition index (oDI) during the liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and negative autoantibodies (Ab(-)) versus those with T2DM and positive autoantibodies (Ab(+)) to examine whether differences in β-cell function can be detected between the 2 groups.


Twenty-seven youth with Ab(-) and 15 youth with Ab(+) clinically diagnosed T2DM underwent a mixed-meal test (Boost; 55% carbohydrate, 25% protein, and 20% fat). Fasting and mixed-meal-derived insulin and C-peptide indices of IS, secretion (30-minute insulinogenic [ΔI(30)/ΔG(30)] and C-peptide [ΔC(30)/ΔG(30)]), and oDI were calculated.


Indices of insulin secretion were ~40%-50% lower in patients with Ab(+) T2DM compared with those with Ab(-) T2DM. After controlling for body mass index, ΔI(30)/ΔG(30), ΔC(30)/ΔG(30), C-peptide area under the curve (AUC)/glucose AUC, and insulin AUC/glucose AUC were significantly (P < .05) lower in the Ab(+) group compared with the Ab(-) group. Sensitivity indices were significantly higher in the Ab(+) group. The oDI, 1/fasting insulin × ΔI(30)/ΔG(30) (0.04 ± 0.02 vs 0.12 ± 0.02 mg/dL(-1); P = .005), and 1/fasting C-peptide × ΔC(30)/ΔG(30) (0.02 ± 0.009 vs 0.05 ± 0.006 mg/dL(-1); P = .018) were lower in the Ab(+) group. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that fasting C-peptide <3.2 ng/mL had 87% sensitivity and 74% specificity and ΔC(30)/ΔG(30) <0.075 ng/mL per mg/dL had 93% sensitivity and 80% specificity for identifying youth with Ab(+) T2DM.


During a liquid mixed-meal test, indices of β-cell function were lower and IS was higher in patients with Ab(+) T2DM versus those with Ab(-) T2DM, with high sensitivity and specificity for fasting and stimulated C-peptide as markers of Ab(+) status. Indices of insulin secretion during this standardized mixed-meal test could be used to assess β-cell function in therapeutic trials of β-cell restoration in youth with T2DM.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center