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Acta Pol Pharm. 2012 Nov-Dec;69(6):1307-12.

Inhibitory effect of inositol hexaphosphate on metalloproteinases transcription in colon cancer cells stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate.

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Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland.


Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring phytochemical, found in abundance in cereals, legumes and other high-fiber-content diets. IP6 has shown promising efficacy against a wide range of cancers. Its anti-cancer activity involves anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic effects. Both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), are implicated in tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is a well-known inflammatory stimulator and tumor promoter that activates PKC and increases the invasiveness of various types of cancer cells by activating MMPs. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of IP6 on the expression of selected MMPs, i.e., MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, 10, -13 and their TIMP-1 and -2 in unstimulated and PMA-stimulated colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Quantification of genes expression in Caco-2 cells treated with 100 ng/mL of PMA, 2.5 mM of IP6 and both for 6 and 12 h was carried out using real time QRT-PCR technique. Stimulation of cells with PMA resulted in an up-expression of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 mRNAs and decrease in MMP-1 gene expression. The quantity of TIMP-2 transcript was reduced by PMA. A significant decrease in MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-10, MMP-13, and TIMP-1 expression in response to IP6 was observed. IP6 down-regulated MMP-9 transcription induced by PMA and decreased the level of both MMP-2 and MMP-3 mRNAs in PMA-stimulated cells. Caco-2 treated with both PMA and IP6 showed a significant decrease in MMP-1 expression in comparison to PMA-stimulated cells. The results of this study show that PMA can modulate MMP and TIMP genes transcription in colon cancer cells Caco-2. IP6 exerts an influence of basal mRNA expression of some MMPs and their tissue inhibitors and down-regulates MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9 in cells treated with PMA. IP6 could be an effective anti-metastatic agent that suppresses expression of MMP genes at transcription level.

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