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Anc Sci Life. 2011 Oct;31(2):52-7.

Physicochemical characterization of an Iron based Indian traditional medicine: Mandura Bhasma.

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Department of Rasa Shastra, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, B.H.U., Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Ayurveda is a unique system of medicine which uses metals and minerals in the form of bhasma (fine powder obtained through calcinations). Mandura is one of such mineral having various therapeutic uses. An effort has been made in the present study to characterize raw and processed Mandura using sophisticated analytical tools as a step forward to standardization. Mandura bhasma was prepared following references of Ayurvedic classics. To assure the quality of the prepared bhasma, Rasa Shastra quality control tests like rekhapurnatvam (particles enter into furrows of human hand), varitara (floating of product particles on water), irreversible etc., were used. Bhasma fulfilling these tests was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. This revealed that raw Mandura contained Fe(2)Si0(4), and Mandura bhasma contained Fe(2)O(3) and SiO(2). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the grains in Mandura bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of sizes 200-300 nm as compared to the raw Mandura, which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of sizes 10-2 microns. It may be concluded that this conversion of raw Mandura, a complex compound, into a mixture of simple compounds having nano-sized particles is due to the particular process of calcination employed.


Mandura bhasma; Scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction


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