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Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2013 Jan;97(1):60-6. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23093. Epub 2013 Jan 2.

Dietary vitamin A intake below the recommended daily intake during pregnancy and the risk of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in the offspring.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sophia Children's Hospital, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vitamin A has been related to the etiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We performed a case-control study to investigate whether maternal dietary vitamin A intake is related to CDH in the offspring.

METHODS:

Thirty-one pregnancies diagnosed with CDH and 46 control pregnancies were included during the study. After CDH diagnosis and inclusion of controls by risk set sampling, maternal vitamin A intake was investigated with a food frequency questionnaire. Serum retinol and retinol-binding protein were determined. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate risk estimates with adjustment for potential confounders.

RESULTS:

We found no significant differences in the overall nutrient and vitamin A intake between case and control mothers. After stratification in body mass index (BMI) categories, case mothers with normal weight showed a lower energy adjusted vitamin A intake (685 vs. 843 μg retinol activity equivalents [RAEs] / day; p = 0.04) and a slightly lower serum retinol (1.58 vs. 1.67 μmol/L; p = 0.08) than control mothers. Vitamin A intake <800 μg retinol activity equivalents (recommended daily intake) in normal weight mothers was associated with a significantly increased CDH risk (odds ratio [OR], 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-34.4; p = 0.01). Associations were not significantly different in underweight and overweight mothers.

CONCLUSIONS:

In normal-weight mothers, dietary vitamin A intake during pregnancy below the recommended daily intake is significantly associated with an increased risk of a child with CDH. This finding supports the retinoid hypothesis in human CDH, but warrants further investigation in larger study populations. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID:
23283831
DOI:
10.1002/bdra.23093
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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