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Cell Signal. 2013 Apr;25(4):743-51. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.12.018. Epub 2012 Dec 29.

The Not3/5 subunit of the Ccr4-Not complex: a central regulator of gene expression that integrates signals between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.

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Dpt of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1 Rue Michel Servet, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland.


The Ccr4-Not complex is a conserved multi-subunit complex in eukaryotes that carries 2 enzymatic activities: ubiquitination mediated by the Not4 RING E3 ligase and deadenylation mediated by the Ccr4 and Caf1 orthologs. This complex has been implicated in all aspects of the mRNA life cycle, from synthesis of mRNAs in the nucleus to their degradation in the cytoplasm. More recently the complex has also been implicated in many aspects of the life cycle of proteins, from quality control during synthesis of peptides, to assembly of protein complexes and protein degradation. Consistently, the Ccr4-Not complex is found both in the nucleus, where it is connected to transcribing ORFs, and in the cytoplasm, where it was revealed to be both associated with translating ribosomes and in RNA processing bodies. This functional and physical presence of the Ccr4-Not complex at all stages of gene expression raises the question of its fundamental role. This review will summarize recent evidence designing the Not3/5 module of the Ccr4-Not complex as a functional module involved in coordination of the regulation of gene expression between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

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