Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Biol Sci. 2012 Dec 26;280(1753):20122243. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2243. Print 2013 Feb 22.

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control.

Author information

Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.


Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center