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Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Feb 15;151(3-4):275-84. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.11.017. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Linoleic acid increases adhesion, chemotaxis, granule release, intracellular calcium mobilisation, MAPK phosphorylation and gene expression in bovine neutrophils.

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Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.


Neutrophils are critical to the innate immune response; therefore, the proper function of neutrophils is critical to avoid the development of certain diseases. Linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acid, is one of the most abundant long-chain fatty acids found in the plasma of cows after giving birth. In this study, we evaluated the effects of linoleic acid treatment on bovine neutrophil adhesion, chemotaxis, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 release, CD11b expression, intracellular calcium mobilisation, mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and COX-2 and IL-8 expression. Bovine neutrophils isolated from healthy heifers were incubated with different concentrations of linoleic acid, and then neutrophil responses were evaluated. Our results show that the treatment of neutrophils with 100 μM linoleic acid increased their adhesion to the bovine endothelial cell line CPA47. The results of a transwell migration assay revealed that linoleic acid could also promote the chemotaxis of bovine neutrophils. Furthermore, linoleic acid treatment increased MMP-9 activity and CD11b cell surface expression in neutrophils. Fifty and 100 μM linoleic acid also increased intracellular calcium mobilisation in neutrophils loaded with Fluo-4 AM dye. Linoleic acid also rapidly (2-5 min) stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK as evaluated by immunoblot. Finally, COX-2 and IL-8 mRNA expression increased after 2h of linoleic acid treatment. In conclusion, linoleic acid stimulates adhesion, chemotaxis, granule release and intracellular responses in bovine neutrophils.

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