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J Res Med Sci. 2012 Mar;17(3):280-92.

Helicobacter pylori in Iran: A systematic review on the association of genotypes and gastroduodenal diseases.

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Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.



Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known as a major etiologic factor for a variety of gastroduodenal diseases. In Iran, with a high rate of H. pylori infection close to 90%, numerous studies have revealed many aspects of interaction between the bacterium, mucosal surface and induction of disease outcome. The organism is genetically diverse and several virulence factors are attributed to the more virulent strains. The well-characterized virulence factors of H. pylori are cytotoxin associated gene A and vacuolating cytotoxin gene A. The distribution pattern of H. pylori genotypes and its association with disease status varies geographically. The present review focused on the virulence factors and genotyping of H. pylori in relation to gastroduodenal disorders in different regions of Iran.


In total, 398 studies were reported on different aspects related to H. pylori in our electronic search from 1995-2011. H. pylori infection and its virulence factors in association with disease status were investigated in 159 reports. Looking specifically at the gastrointestinal tract disorders, the most relevant reports including 37 papers were selected.


We found no correlation of cagA genotype and disease status in the majority of studies, whereas vacA was demonstrated as a useful marker in predicting the disease outcome. The results of reports on other virulence factors of H. pylori such as blood group antigen-binding adhesion gene A, the induced by contact with epithelium gene A, the outer inflammatory protein A, the duodenal ulcer promoting gene A, and Helicobacter outer membrane gene and their relation with disease status were contradictory.


Although different markers of H. pylori were emphasized as useful when predicting disease outcomes in some studies, the inconsistent researches and the scarcity of data made any conclusion or even comparison impossible. Considering the gap of information observed during our search relating to genotyping and other aspects of H. pylori infection, further investigations are suggested.


Gastroduodenal; Genotyping; H. pylori; Iran; Virulence; cagA; vacA


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