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Virus Res. 2013 Apr;173(1):198-203. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2012.12.007. Epub 2012 Dec 22.

African swine fever in the North Caucasus region and the Russian Federation in years 2007-2012.

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State Research Institution National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russia of Russian Academy of Agricultural Science, 601120 Pokrov, Petushki District, Vladimir Region, Russian Federation.


Since the introduction of the virus into the Republic of Georgia in 2007 African swine fever (ASF) has become a large-scale epidemic involving the domestic pig population but wild boars are involved as well. From 2008 to 2009 the ASF epidemic affected wild and domestic pigs in all the southern regions of the Russian Federation (RF). The driving force of the epidemic in its initial stages was direct contact between infected wild boars and between wild boars and traditionally free-ranging domestic pigs in backyard farms. Driving forces of the epidemic at the its first stages was direct contact of infected wild boars between each other and with traditionally free ranged domestic pigs in backyard farms. The next stage developed due to illegal movement of pig products contaminated by African swine fever virus (ASFV) from affected regions and swill feeding, and inefficient implementation of measures to prevent and control ASF. From 2010 through 2012, ASF spread to other, previously unaffected regions of the RF. Most of outbreaks in the southern regions (Krasnodar, Stavropol, Rostov regions) are secondary. Currently, the disease situation observed in endemic areas of the RF, including the southern Krasnodar and Volgograd regions and the central Tver' region, is very complicated. In 2012, a large number of outbreaks in domestic pigs and in wild boars were reported. The circulating ASFV is highly virulent and has maintained its virulence throughout the epidemic since its introduction in 2007. Considering the forces currently driving the ASF epidemic - circulation of ASF virus in wild boars, ineffectiveness of prevention and control measures, lack of common interest in eradicating the disease and absence of a nationally funded eradication program - continued outbreaks, including those in previously unaffected regions of the RF, can be expected.

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