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Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jan;24(1):40-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in overnutrition-induced diseases.

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Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Aging, Diabetes Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.


Overnutrition-induced diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) involve neural dysregulation of metabolic physiology. Recently, interdisciplinary research in neuroscience and immunology has linked overnutrition to a non-classical onset of inflammation in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus. This neuroinflammation impairs central regulatory pathways of energy balance and nutrient metabolism, and leads to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. This review describes recent findings on the roles of overnutrition-induced hypothalamic inflammation in neurodegeneration and defective adult neurogenesis, as well as in impaired neural stem cell regeneration, and their relevance to obesity and related diseases. In addition, commonalities in terms of neuroinflammation between neurodegenerative diseases and overnutrition-induced metabolic diseases are discussed. Targeting neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration will provide promising approaches for treating obesity and other overnutrition-related diseases.

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