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Eur J Cancer. 2013 Mar;49(5):999-1008. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.11.008. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

A Phase 1 dose-finding and pharmacodynamic study of rapamycin in combination with bevacizumab in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

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1
Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore. choosupin@nccs.com.sg

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Preclinical studies have demonstrated the additive effect of rapamycin with bevacizumab for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. We conducted a Phase 1 study to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of the combination in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

METHODS:

Adult participants with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma received intravenous bevacizumab (5mg/kg every 14 days) and oral rapamycin (1-6 mg/day; 3+3 dose escalation design). Computed tomography assessed tumour response and treatment safety. Pharmacokinetics assessment established rapamycin blood concentrations pre- and post-dose. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography analysed the tumour region for blood flow, permeability surface area product, fractional intravascular blood volume and extracellular-extravascular volume.

RESULTS:

Twenty-four participants were treated. There were two dose limiting toxicities with rapamycin 5mg: grade 3 thrombocytopenia and grade 3 mucositis. The maximally tolerated dose of rapamycin was 4 mg. Adverse events (grade 1-2) included hyperglycaemia (83%), thrombocytopenia (75%), fatigue (46%), mucositis (46%), anorexia (42%), diarrhoea (33%) and proteinuria (12.5%). Of 20 evaluable participants, one reached complete response that lasted 4.5 months, two reached partial response, 14 reached stable disease and three had progressive disease. Median overall survival was 9.4 months; progression-free survival was 5.5 months. Dose level and steady state area under the concentration time curve for hour zero to infinity of rapamycin correlated inversely with blood flow rate and change in permeability-surface area. After 22 days of treatment, there were significant reductions from baseline in blood flow rate, permeability-surface area and fractional intracellular blood volume.

CONCLUSIONS:

The recommended Phase 2 dose of rapamycin is 4 mg in combination with bevacizumab. Evidence of anti-vascular activity was observed together with promising clinical activity.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00467194.

PMID:
23265712
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejca.2012.11.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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