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Radiology. 1990 May;175(2):545-52.

Steady-state free precession imaging in the presence of motion: application for improved visualization of the cerebrospinal fluid.

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Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.


The authors discuss the appropriate FISP (fast imaging with steady-state precession) sequence structure to maintain constant phase at the radio-frequency pulse in the presence of motion. They present preliminary results of its application to head and spine imaging in an effort to maintain contrast between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the soft tissue. In the usual application of these FISP-like sequences, the gradient structure is modified to avoid unwanted signal (and contrast) variations due to field inhomogeneities. This change makes the signal sensitive to motion with a resulting decrease in signal intensity for moving tissue. The expected high contrast at large flip angles for tissues with low T1/T2 ratios such as CSF is not obtained. The technique discussed here overcomes the effects of field inhomogeneities and compensates for moving spins so that the transverse steady-state equilibrium and hence high contrast are obtained simultaneously.

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