Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Mar;57(3):1246-51. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02050-12. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

In vivo therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine alone or in combination with primaquine against vivax malaria in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, and polymorphism in pvmdr1 and pvcrt-o genes.

Author information

Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India.


Plasmodium vivax malaria, though benign, has now become a matter of concern due to recent reports of life-threatening severity and development of parasite resistance to different antimalarial drugs. The magnitude of the problem is still undetermined. The present study was undertaken to determine the in vivo efficacy of chloroquine (CQ) and chloroquine plus primaquine in P. vivax malaria in Kolkata and polymorphisms in the pvmdr1 and pvcrt-o genes. A total of 250 patients with P. vivax monoinfection were recruited and randomized into two groups, A and B; treated with chloroquine and chloroquine plus primaquine, respectively; and followed up for 42 days according to the WHO protocol of 2009. Data were analyzed using per-protocol analyses. We assessed polymorphisms of the pvmdr1 and pvcrt-o genes by a DNA-sequencing method. Out of the 250 patients recruited, 204 completed a 42-day follow-up period, 101 in group A and 103 in group B. In group A, the non-PCR-corrected efficacy of CQ was 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.944 to 1.00), and in group B, all cases were classified as adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). Day 3 positivity was observed in 11 (5.3%) cases. No specific mutation pattern was recorded in the pvcrt-o gene. Eight nonsynonymous mutations were found in the pvmdr1 gene, three of which were new. The Y976F mutation was not detected in any isolate. Chloroquine, either alone or in combination with primaquine, is still effective against P. vivax malaria in the study area. (The study protocol was registered in CTRI [Clinical Trial Registry-India] of the Indian council of Medical Research under registration no. CTRI/2011/09/002031.).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center