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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013 Mar;28(3):706-15. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfs567. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Is albuminuria screening and treatment optimal in patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care? Observational data of the GIANTT cohort.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Failure of diagnosing and treatment of albuminuria play a role in morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We evaluated guideline adherence and factors associated with albuminuria screening and treatment in T2DM patients in primary care.

METHODS:

Guidelines recommend annual measurement of albuminuria and, if increased, treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. We performed a cohort study of T2DM patients managed by 182 Dutch general practitioners (GPs; Groningen Initiative to Analyse Type 2 diabetes Treatment database), and evaluated guideline adherence in the years 2007-2009. We assessed whether demographic, clinical, organizational or provider factors determined guideline adherence with multilevel analyses.

RESULTS:

Data were available for 14 120 T2DM patients [47.6% male, mean age 67.3 ± 11.7 years, median diabetes duration 6 (IQR: 3-10) years]. The albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured in 45.2% in 2007, 57.4% in 2008 and 56.8% in 2009. Only 23.7% of all patients were measured every year and 21.4% were never measured. The ACR was more often measured in patients <75 years, with a previous ACR measurement, using anti-diabetic medication, and receiving additional care by a diabetes support facility. RAAS treatment was prescribed to 78.4% of patients with prevalent micro/macroalbuminuria, 66.5% with incident micro/macroalbuminuria, 59.3% with normoalbuminuria and 52.1% of those without ACR measurements. In those not treated with RAAS blockers, it was initiated in 14.3, 12.3, 3.0 and 2.3%, respectively. The presence of micro/macroalbuminuria, higher blood pressure, incidence of cardiovascular events and treatment with antihypertensive medication were the determinants of RAAS-treatment initiation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Guideline implementation regarding the management of albuminuria in T2DM patients in primary care should be further improved.

PMID:
23262433
DOI:
10.1093/ndt/gfs567
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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