Send to

Choose Destination
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013 Mar 1;183:14-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.11.024. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Stocking density influences brain arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) levels in males and females of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

Author information

Department of Genetics and Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55 Str., Sopot, Poland.


Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) are fish neurohormones produced in separate parvocellular and magnocellular preoptic neurons of Teleostei. Apart from well-established peripheral action as hormones they are important neurotransmitters in central nervous system in fish. In the present study, we examined an influence of stocking density on whole brain AVT and IT concentrations in males and females of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In males, the highest AVT levels have been found at stocking densities of 10 and 30 individuals per 30-l tank. On the other hand, in females, AVT concentration was significantly higher in those kept alone. Brain IT concentrations significantly increased along with stocking density only in females and did not change in males. The sex-dependent responses indicate a different stimulation of AVT and IT neurons in males and females. Consequently, roles of the neurohormones in males and females exposed to stress of overcrowding must be different.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center