Send to

Choose Destination
Gynecol Oncol. 2013 Mar;128(3):544-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.12.014. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Predictive model of venous thromboembolism in endometrial cancer.

Author information

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.



To profile characteristics and survival of endometrial cancer patients who develop venous thromboembolism (VTE) and to establish a predictive model of VTE in endometrial cancer.


Cases were identified using an institutional database between 2000 and 2011. VTE was correlated to clinico-pathological information and survival outcomes. Frequency and odds ratio (OR) of VTE were examined in a predictive model based on combination patterns of independent risk factors for VTE.


VTE was seen in 42 (8.1%, 95% CI 5.8-10.5) out of 516 cases subsequent to the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Multivariate analysis identified 4 independent risk factors for VTE: elevated CA-125 (hazard ratio [HR] 5.38, p<0.001), extrauterine disease (HR 2.87, p=0.019), thrombocytosis (HR 2.11, p=0.04), and high risk histology (serous and clear cell, HR 2.09, p=0.049). VTE was the strongest variable for decreased progression-free survival (HR 4.28) and the second strongest variable for decreased overall survival (HR 5.65) in multivariate analysis. In a predictive model of VTE, the presence of multiple risk factors was associated with significantly increased risk of VTE: frequency of VTE, 1.4% if no risk factors, 0-9.3% (OR 1.0-4.2) if a single risk factor, 11.1-25.0% (OR 9.0-24.0) if two risk factors, and 42.9-46.2% (OR 54.0-61.7) if ≥3 risk factors.


VTE represents a surrogate for aggressive disease in endometrial cancer. Multiple risk factors of VTE in our predictive model demonstrated exceedingly high risk of VTE, suggesting that there may be a certain population of endometrial cancer patients who would benefit from long-term anti-coagulant prophylaxis to improve survival outcome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center