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Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013 Mar 1;6(2):311-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.112.976076. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Detecting myocardial ischemia at rest with cardiac phase-resolved blood oxygen level-dependent cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

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Departments of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.



Fast noninvasive identification of ischemic territories at rest (before tissue-specific changes) and assessment of functional status can be valuable in the management of severe coronary artery disease. This study investigated the use of cardiac phase-resolved blood oxygen level-dependent (CP-BOLD) cardiovascular magnetic resonance in detecting myocardial ischemia at rest secondary to severe coronary artery stenosis.


CP-BOLD, standard cine, and T2-weighted images were acquired in canines (n=11) at baseline and within 20 minutes of ischemia induction (severe left anterior descending stenosis) at rest. After 3 hours of ischemia, left anterior descending stenosis was removed, and T2-weighted and late-gadolinium-enhancement images were acquired. From standard cine and CP-BOLD images, end-systolic and end-diastolic myocardium was segmented. Affected and remote sections of the myocardium were identified from postreperfusion late-gadolinium-enhancement images. Systolic-to-diastolic ratio (S/D), quotient of mean end-systolic and end-diastolic signal intensities (on CP-BOLD and standard cine), was computed for affected and remote segments at baseline and ischemia. Ejection fraction and segmental wall thickening were derived from CP-BOLD images at baseline and ischemia. On CP-BOLD images, S/D was >1 (remote and affected territories) at baseline; S/D was diminished only in affected territories during ischemia, and the findings were statistically significant (ANOVA, post hoc P<0.01). The dependence of S/D on ischemia was not observed in standard cine images. Computer simulations confirmed the experimental findings. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that S/D identifies affected regions with performance (area under the curve, 0.87) similar to ejection fraction (area under the curve, 0.89) and segmental wall thickening (area under the curve, 0.75).


Preclinical studies and computer simulations showed that CP-BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance could be useful in detecting myocardial ischemia at rest. Patient studies are needed for clinical translation.

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