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Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Feb 14;15(6):1782-7. doi: 10.1039/c2cp43443a. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Electrophoresis of randomly and vertically embedded graphene nanosheets in activated carbon film as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

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Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.


A new approach has been developed to randomly and vertically embed the graphene nanosheets (GNs) in the activated carbon (AC) film in an applied electric field. The activated carbon (AC) nanoparticles in suspension during electrophoresis play an important role in supporting the GNs perpendicular to the FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) glass. Insufficient amount of AC nanoparticles might result in a deposition of GNs parallel to the FTO glass, leading to incomplete utilization of the surface area accessible to electrolyte ions. An AC cathode with randomly and vertically embedded GNs facilitated electrolyte penetration and electron conduction. The photoelectron conversion efficiency of the cell was increased to 7.50% by employing the AC cathode with randomly and vertically embedded GNs.


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