Send to

Choose Destination
Retrovirology. 2012 Dec 20;9:113. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-9-113.

APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F rarely co-mutate the same HIV genome.

Author information

Centre for Vascular Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.



The human immune proteins APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F (hA3G and hA3F) induce destructive G-to-A changes in the HIV genome, referred to as 'hypermutation'. These two proteins co-express in human cells, co-localize to mRNA processing bodies and might co-package into HIV virions. Therefore they are expected to also co-mutate the HIV genome. Here we investigate the mutational footprints of hA3G and hA3F in a large population of full genome HIV-1 sequences from naturally infected patients to uniquely identify sequences hypermutated by either or both of these proteins. We develop a method of identification based on the representation of hA3G and hA3F target and product motifs that does not require an alignment to a parental/consensus sequence.


Out of nearly 100 hypermutated HIV-1 sequences only one sequence from the HIV-1 outlier group showed clear signatures of co-mutation by both proteins. The remaining sequences were affected by either hA3G or hA3F.


Using a novel method of identification of HIV sequences hypermutated by the hA3G and hA3F enzymes, we report a very low rate of co-mutation of full-length HIV sequences, and discuss the potential mechanisms underlying this.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center