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Hum Mutat. 2013 Mar;34(3):462-72. doi: 10.1002/humu.22261. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Mutations in CCDC39 and CCDC40 are the major cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia with axonemal disorganization and absent inner dynein arms.

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1
Molecular Medicine Unit and Birth Defects Research Centre, University College London (UCL) Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Abstract

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by cilia and sperm dysmotility. About 12% of cases show perturbed 9+2 microtubule cilia structure and inner dynein arm (IDA) loss, historically termed "radial spoke defect." We sequenced CCDC39 and CCDC40 in 54 "radial spoke defect" families, as these are the two genes identified so far to cause this defect. We discovered biallelic mutations in a remarkable 69% (37/54) of families, including identification of 25 (19 novel) mutant alleles (12 in CCDC39 and 13 in CCDC40). All the mutations were nonsense, splice, and frameshift predicting early protein truncation, which suggests this defect is caused by "null" alleles conferring complete protein loss. Most families (73%; 27/37) had homozygous mutations, including families from outbred populations. A major putative hotspot mutation was identified, CCDC40 c.248delC, as well as several other possible hotspot mutations. Together, these findings highlight the key role of CCDC39 and CCDC40 in PCD with axonemal disorganization and IDA loss, and these genes represent major candidates for genetic testing in families affected by this ciliary phenotype. We show that radial spoke structures are largely intact in these patients and propose this ciliary ultrastructural abnormality be referred to as "IDA and microtubular disorganisation defect," rather than "radial spoke defect."

PMID:
23255504
PMCID:
PMC3630464
DOI:
10.1002/humu.22261
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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