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Cell Cycle. 2013 Jan 15;12(2):346-52. doi: 10.4161/cc.23199. Epub 2012 Jan 15.

Spermidine promotes mating and fertilization efficiency in model organisms.

Author information

1
Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Karl-Franzens University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Abstract

Spermidine is a naturally occurring polyamine involved in multiple biological processes, including DNA metabolism, autophagy and aging. Like other polyamines, spermidine is also indispensable for successful reproduction at several stages. However, a direct influence on the actual fertilization process, i.e., the fusion of an oocyte with a spermatocyte, remains uncertain. To explore this possibility, we established the mating process in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for fertilization in higher eukaryotes. During human fertilization, the sperm capacitates and the acrosome reaction is necessary for penetration of the oocyte. Similarly, sexually active yeasts form a protrusion called "shmoo" as a prerequisite for mating. In this study, we demonstrate that pheromone-induced shmoo formation requires spermidine. In addition, we show that spermidine is essential for mating in yeast as well as for egg fertilization in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In both cases, this occurs independently from autophagy. In synthesis, we identify spermidine as an important mating component in unicellular and multicellular model organisms, supporting an unprecedented evolutionary conservation of the mechanisms governing fertilization-related cellular fusion.

KEYWORDS:

Caenorhabditis elegans; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; autophagy; fertilization; mating; sexual reproduction; shmoo; spermidine

Comment in

PMID:
23255134
PMCID:
PMC3575463
DOI:
10.4161/cc.23199
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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