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Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Mar;56(5):727-34. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis933. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Mortality attributable to smoking among HIV-1-infected individuals: a nationwide, population-based cohort study.

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Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.



We assessed mortality attributable to smoking among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).


We estimated mortality rates (MRs), mortality rate ratios (MRRs), life expectancies, life-years lost, and population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking and with HIV among current and nonsmoking individuals from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort and a cohort of matched HIV-negative individuals.


A total of 2921 HIV patients and 10 642 controls were followed for 14 281 and 45 122 person-years, respectively. All-cause and non-AIDS-related mortality was substantially increased among smoking compared to nonsmoking HIV patients (MRR, 4.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.0-6.7] and 5.3 [95% CI, 3.2-8.8], respectively). Excess MR per 1000 person-years among current vs nonsmokers was 17.6 (95% CI, 13.3-21.9) for HIV patients and 4.8 (95% CI, 3.2-6.4) for controls. A 35-year-old HIV patient had a median life expectancy of 62.6 years (95% CI, 59.9-64.6) for smokers and 78.4 years (95% CI, 70.8-84.0) for nonsmokers; the numbers of life-years lost in association with smoking and HIV were 12.3 (95% CI, 8.1-16.4) and 5.1 (95% CI, 1.6-8.5). The population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking was 61.5% among HIV patients and 34.2% among controls.


In a setting where HIV care is well organized and antiretroviral therapy is free of charge, HIV-infected smokers lose more life-years to smoking than to HIV. The excess mortality of smokers is tripled and the population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking is doubled among HIV patients compared to the background population.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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