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Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. 2012 Jul;33(3):161-5. doi: 10.4103/0971-5851.103143.

Comparative study of effectiveness of Pap smear versus visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix.

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1
Casuality Medical Officer, Trauma Centre, KGMU, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Cancer of the cervix is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Therefore, to curb the disease, there is a need to develop a screening test that has good sensitivity and specificity. The present study is aimed to compare the effectiveness of the Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix; to evaluate the usefulness of VIA and VILI as an adjunct to improve sensitivity of cervical cytology; and to evaluate the role of VILI as a parallel screening method with VIA to enhance its test performance.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

This was a prospective, analytical study in which 210 patients of the reproductive age group attending the gynecology OPD were enrolled.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Patients were first subjected to Pap smear followed by VIA, VILI, colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of lesion, if needed. Data was obtained and statistically analyzed.

RESULTS:

Of the 210 patients, 34 (16.27%) had positive Pap test, 29 (13.87%) had positive VIA and 24 (11.43%) had positive VILI and 31 (14.75%) showed features of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) on colposcopy. Of the total of 48 patients in whom either of the screening tests was positive and had undergone cervical biopsy, one had CIN-3, three had CIN-2, 12 had CIN-1, three had carcinoma in situ CIS and 29 reported normal. In our study, 40 patients were picked up as positive by combination of these tests, of which 19 (47.50%) had CIN on biopsy.

CONCLUSION:

Our study showed that VIA and VILI had sensitivity comparable to Pap smear and can thus be a suitable potential alternative/adjunctive screening test not only in a resource-poor setting but in well-equipped centers also. And, use of a combination of tests (Pap+VIA+VILI) had 100% sensitivity but at cost of low specificity and more false-positive results.

KEYWORDS:

Cervical cancer; Pap smear; visual inspection with Lugol's iodine; visual inspection with acetic acid

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