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Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013 Feb 1;185(3):659-64. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2012.12.001. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

Isoflurane and ketamine anesthesia have different effects on ventilatory pattern variability in rats.

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School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.


We hypothesize that isoflurane and ketamine impact ventilatory pattern variability (VPV) differently. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were recorded in a whole-body plethysmograph before, during and after deep anesthesia. VPV was quantified from 60-s epochs using a complementary set of analytic techniques that included constructing surrogate data sets that preserved the linear structure but disrupted nonlinear deterministic properties of the original data. Even though isoflurane decreased and ketamine increased respiratory rate, VPV as quantified by the coefficient of variation decreased for both anesthetics. Further, mutual information increased and sample entropy decreased and the nonlinear complexity index (NLCI) increased during anesthesia despite qualitative differences in the shape and period of the waveform. Surprisingly mutual information and sample entropy did not change in the surrogate sets constructed from isoflurane data, but in those constructed from ketamine data, mutual information increased and sample entropy decreased significantly in the surrogate segments constructed from anesthetized relative to unanesthetized epochs. These data suggest that separate mechanisms modulate linear and nonlinear variability of breathing.

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