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Drugs Today (Barc). 2012 Dec;48(12):795-809. doi: 10.1358/dot.2012.48.12.1872944.

Insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

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4th Department of Paediatrics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.


Since insulin is the unique and life-long therapy in type 1 diabetes and classical insulin preparations have certain limitations due to their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, the new insulin analogues aim to eliminate these limitations. Five insulin analogues are commercially available and approved for individuals with type 1 diabetes: three rapid-acting (insulin lispro, insulin aspart and insulin glulisine) and two long-acting insulin analogues (insulin glargine and insulin detemir). According to several studies conducted in children with type 1 diabetes, insulin analogues, due to their structural alterations, offer flexibility, reduction of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes and decrease in postprandial hyperglycemic events, resulting in improved quality of life for diabetic children and their families. However, diabetes control measured with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c has been reported to be similar to conventional insulin preparations. Evidence-based medical reports indicate that insulin analogues are safe and effective, and therefore approved for children even from the age of 2 years. Moreover, suspicions and reports on the association of insulin analogues with carcinogenesis have not been established, requiring further investigation. This review reports the properties and characteristics of insulin analogues, as well as the results of current studies concerning pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes.

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