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Mol Cancer Ther. 2013 Feb;12(2):230-40. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-0699. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

Antitumor activity and pharmacodynamic biomarkers of a novel and orally available small-molecule antagonist of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins.

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Oncology Drug Discovery Unit, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd, Japan.


Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP), which are key regulators of apoptosis, are inhibited by second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC). Small-molecule IAP antagonists have recently been reported as novel therapeutic treatments for cancer. In this study, we showed that the octahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivative, T-3256336, is a novel and orally available small-molecule IAP antagonist. T-3256336 selectively binds to and antagonizes protein interactions involving cellular IAP-1 (cIAP-1), cIAP-2, and X-linked IAP (XIAP). T-3256336 induced the rapid proteasomal degradation of cIAP-1 and activated TNF-α-dependent extrinsic apoptosis signaling in cultured cells. In a MDA-MB-231-Luc breast cancer xenograft model, T-3256336 induced cIAP-1 degradation, TNF-α production, and caspase activation in tumors, which resulted in strong antitumor activities. T-3256336 induced increases in the plasma levels of TNF-α and fragmented cytokeratin-18, which correlated with the antitumor potency in MDA-MB-231-Luc xenograft models. This study provided further insights into biomarkers of IAP antagonists. Furthermore, our data provided evidence that T-3256336 is a promising new anticancer drug worthy of further evaluation and development.

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