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Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Jan;14(1):137-45. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2013.754013. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

An update on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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University of California, Child Development Center, 19722 MacArthur Boulevard, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.



The efficacy and safety of stimulants for the pharmacologic management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well documented. The US Food and Drug Administration approval of additional classes of medication even within stimulant treatments expands the prescribing options for practitioners. The focus of this paper is the prodrug amphetamine stimulant, lisdexamfetamine (LDX) , which is an example of such an agent with a novel delivery system.


This review covers the proof-of-concept and later studies of LDX to describe its use to treat ADHD in pediatric and adult populations. A literature search and review of LDX were carried out using the PubMed database up to August 2012.


Clinical studies of LDX in children and adults with ADHD demonstrate its tolerability and its efficacy in reducing ADHD symptoms. Future research should be less restrictive in order to address some of the unmet needs in ADHD treatment. The inclusion of patients with ADHD and co-occurring mental health disorders and/or medical conditions is typically not studied in clinical trials nor is the prior ADHD treatment exposure of study participants. The preschool age population also is understudied in recently approved ADHD treatments such as LDX. Finally, how to approach the treatment of participants or first-degree relatives with a medical history or presence of substance use disorder presents an ongoing clinical challenge.

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