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Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013 Mar;151(3):315-23. doi: 10.1007/s12011-012-9566-7. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Body fat percentage and hemoglobin levels are related to blood lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations in a Korean Adult Population (KNHANES 2008-2010).

Author information

1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Hoseo University, 165 Sechul-Ri Baebang-Myun, Asan-Si, Chungnam-Do, 336-795, South Korea.

Abstract

Body stores of lead, cadmium, and mercury are determined by the levels in the circulation, and their levels in blood may be related to hemoglobin levels and their absorption by soft tissue and bone. We investigated the association of body fat percentage, hemoglobin levels, and nutrient intakes with the blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in a Korean adult population. This study was based on data from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (n = 4,522, aged ≥ 20 years), which examined nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters. A multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates of age, body mass index, residence area, education level, smoking and drinking status, and bone mineral density for men, with menopausal status added for women in addition to covariates for men indicated that blood lead and mercury levels were negatively associated with body fat percentage only in men, and blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels were positively related to hemoglobin levels in both genders. Additionally, blood lead levels were negatively associated with fat and carbohydrate intake in both men and women but blood mercury levels were only in men, but not women. Sodium intake was a positive predictor of blood lead levels in both genders but was a positive predictor of blood cadmium levels only in men. In conclusion, body fat percentage and hemoglobin levels need to be recognized as confounding factors when considering blood levels of lead, cadmium and mercury as biomarkers for their exposure. Fat, carbohydrates and sodium intakes are also associated with heavy metal levels in the circulation.

PMID:
23238610
DOI:
10.1007/s12011-012-9566-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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