Send to

Choose Destination
Viruses. 2012 Dec 12;4(12):3689-700. doi: 10.3390/v4123689.

Identification and characterization of a novel alpaca respiratory coronavirus most closely related to the human coronavirus 229E.

Author information

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California-Davis, Davis, West Health Sciences Drive, CA 95616, USA.


In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960's to early 1980's. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960's, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center