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J Org Chem. 2013 Jan 18;78(2):568-81. doi: 10.1021/jo302195y. Epub 2013 Jan 10.

Heck alkynylation (copper-free Sonogashira coupling) of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides, using Pd complexes of t-Bu2(p-NMe2C6H4)P: understanding the structure-activity relationships and copper effects.

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  • 1Johnson Matthey Catalysis and Chiral Technologies, 2001 Nolte Drive, West Deptford, New Jersey 08066, USA.


L(2)Pd(0) and L(2)Pd(II) complexes, where L= t-Bu(2)(p-NMe(2)C(6)H(4))P, have been identified as efficient catalyst systems for the Heck alkynylation of a variety of aryl bromides (17 examples) and aryl/heteroaryl chlorides (31 examples) with a range of aryl- and alkyl-acetylenes in excellent yields, under relatively low Pd loadings. The single-crystal X-ray structure determination of the presumably active catalytic species, L(2)Pd(0), was carried out in this study to better understand the superior activity of the current catalyst system from a structure-activity relationship point of view. The P-Pd-P bond angle indicates that the complex is bent (174.7°) in comparison to the perfectly linear (180.0°) structure of the analogous Pd(t-Bu(3)P)(2). Preliminary mechanistic studies on the negative copper effect and substrate effect of aryl acetylenes were conducted to better understand the cross-coupling pathway of Heck alkynylation.

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