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Expert Rev Respir Med. 2012 Dec;6(6):663-82. doi: 10.1586/ers.12.60.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia: recent advances in epidemiology, diagnosis, management and relationship with the expanding spectrum of ciliopathy.

Author information

1
Department of Paediatric Respirology, Imperial School of Medicine at National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK. a.bush@rbh.nthames.nhs.uk

Abstract

Human cilia were once thought merely to be important in respiratory mucociliary clearance, with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) the sole manifestation of ciliary dysfunction. There are now known to be three types of cilia: primary, nodal and motile. Cilia are complex, likely involving more than 1000 gene products; in this review, recent advances in PCD genetics, and the potential relationships with genes causing other ciliopathies, are discussed. PCD is the most important respiratory disease, characterized by upper and lower airway infection and inflammation and disorders of laterality. Ciliary gene mutations are now known to cause single organ disease, as well as complex syndromes. The focus of the review is primarily PCD, in the context of the expanding ciliopathy spectrum. The authors consider the clinical situations in which ciliary disease should be considered, and the implications for specialist respiratory practice.

PMID:
23234452
DOI:
10.1586/ers.12.60
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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