Send to

Choose Destination
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;8(1):287-300. doi: 10.1007/s11481-012-9426-4. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

Modulation of inflammatory cytokines and mitogen-activated protein kinases by acetate in primary astrocytes.

Author information

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 501 North Columbia Road, Room 3742, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA.


Acetate supplementation attenuates neuroglia activation in a rat model of neuroinflammation by a mechanism associated with an increase in brain acetyl-CoA, an alteration in histone acetylation, and reduction of interleukin (IL)-1β expression. We propose that reduced astroglial activation occurs by disrupting astrocyte-derived inflammatory signaling and cytokine release. Using primary astroglial cultures, we found that LPS (0-25 ng/ml, 4 h) increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and IL-1β in a concentration-dependent manner, which was reduced by treatment with sodium acetate (12 mM). LPS did not alter H3K9 acetylation or IL-6 levels, whereas acetate treatment increased H3K9 acetylation by 2-fold and decreased basal levels of IL-6 by 2-fold. Acetate treatment attenuated the LPS-induced increase in TNF-α mRNA, but did not reverse the mRNA levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. By contrast, LPS decreased TGF-β1 and IL-4 protein and TGF-β1 mRNA, all of which was reversed with acetate treatment. Further, we found that acetate treatment completely reversed LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and decreased basal levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) by 2-fold. Acetate treatment also reversed LPS-elevated NF-κB p65, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta protein levels, and reduced basal levels of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 at serine 536. These results suggest that acetate treatment has a net anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated astrocytes that is largely associated with a disruption in MAPK and NF-κB signaling.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center