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Pharm Res. 2013 Mar;30(3):751-60. doi: 10.1007/s11095-012-0917-z. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Interspecies modeling and prediction of human exenatide pharmacokinetics.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo State University of New York, 433 Kapoor Hall, Buffalo, New York, 14260, USA.



To develop a model-based approach for interspecies scaling of the preclinical pharmacokinetics of exenatide and to predict concentration-time profiles in humans.


A target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model was simultaneously fit to concentration-time profiles of exenatide over a wide range of intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) doses obtained from mice, rats, and monkeys. Allometric relationships were incorporated into the model to scale parameters based on species body weight. Human pharmacokinetic profiles following IV and SC administration were simulated using the final model structure and parameter estimates and compared to clinical data.


The final model provided a good simultaneous fit to all animal data and reasonable parameter estimates. Exenatide receptor binding affinity and baseline receptor concentrations were species-dependent. Absorption parameters from rat provided the best prediction of exenatide SC absorption in humans, but good predictions could also be obtained using allometric scaling of preclinical absorption parameters.


A TMDD model combined with allometric scaling was successfully used to simultaneously describe preclinical data for exenatide from three animal species following both IV and SC administration. The majority of model parameters could be shared among the animal species and further used for projecting exenatide behavior in humans.

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