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Ann Intern Med. 2013 Feb 19;158(4):253-60. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-4-201302190-00580.

Primary care-relevant interventions for tobacco use prevention and cessation in children and adolescents: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

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Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, 3800 North Interstate Avenue, Portland, OR 97227, USA.



Interventions to prevent smoking uptake or encourage cessation among young persons might help prevent tobacco-related illness.


To review the evidence for the efficacy and harms of primary care-relevant interventions that aim to reduce tobacco use among children and adolescents.


Three systematic reviews that collectively covered the relevant literature; MEDLINE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects through 14 September 2012; and manual searches of reference lists and gray literature.


Two investigators independently reviewed 2453 abstracts and 111 full-text articles. English-language trials of behavior-based or medication interventions that were relevant to primary care and reported tobacco use, health outcomes, or harms were included.


One investigator abstracted data from good- and fair-quality trials into an evidence table, and a second checked these data.


19 trials (4 good-quality and 15 fair-quality) that were designed to prevent tobacco use initiation or promote cessation (or both) and reported self-reported smoking status or harms were included. Pooled analyses from a random-effects meta-analysis suggested a 19% relative reduction (risk ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93]; absolute risk difference, -0.02 [CI, -0.03 to 0.00]) in smoking initiation among participants in behavior-based prevention interventions compared with control participants. Neither behavior-based nor bupropion cessation interventions improved cessation rates. Findings about the harms related to bupropion use were mixed.


No studies reported health outcomes. Interventions and measures were heterogeneous. Most trials examined only cigarette smoking. The body of evidence was largely published 5 to 15 years ago.


Primary care-relevant interventions may prevent smoking initiation over 12 months in children and adolescents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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