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Ann Intern Med. 2013 Feb 19;158(4):253-60. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-4-201302190-00580.

Primary care-relevant interventions for tobacco use prevention and cessation in children and adolescents: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

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1
Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, 3800 North Interstate Avenue, Portland, OR 97227, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Interventions to prevent smoking uptake or encourage cessation among young persons might help prevent tobacco-related illness.

PURPOSE:

To review the evidence for the efficacy and harms of primary care-relevant interventions that aim to reduce tobacco use among children and adolescents.

DATA SOURCES:

Three systematic reviews that collectively covered the relevant literature; MEDLINE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects through 14 September 2012; and manual searches of reference lists and gray literature.

STUDY SELECTION:

Two investigators independently reviewed 2453 abstracts and 111 full-text articles. English-language trials of behavior-based or medication interventions that were relevant to primary care and reported tobacco use, health outcomes, or harms were included.

DATA EXTRACTION:

One investigator abstracted data from good- and fair-quality trials into an evidence table, and a second checked these data.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

19 trials (4 good-quality and 15 fair-quality) that were designed to prevent tobacco use initiation or promote cessation (or both) and reported self-reported smoking status or harms were included. Pooled analyses from a random-effects meta-analysis suggested a 19% relative reduction (risk ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93]; absolute risk difference, -0.02 [CI, -0.03 to 0.00]) in smoking initiation among participants in behavior-based prevention interventions compared with control participants. Neither behavior-based nor bupropion cessation interventions improved cessation rates. Findings about the harms related to bupropion use were mixed.

LIMITATIONS:

No studies reported health outcomes. Interventions and measures were heterogeneous. Most trials examined only cigarette smoking. The body of evidence was largely published 5 to 15 years ago.

CONCLUSION:

Primary care-relevant interventions may prevent smoking initiation over 12 months in children and adolescents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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