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Resuscitation. 2013 Jun;84(6):831-6. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.11.013. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

The Imperial Paediatric Emergency Training Toolkit (IPETT) for use in paediatric emergency training: development and evaluation of feasibility and validity.

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Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain, University College London Hospitals, London, UK.



To develop and test the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a practical toolkit for the assessment and feedback of skills required to manage paediatric emergencies in critical care settings.


The Imperial Paediatric Emergency Training Toolkit (IPETT) was developed based on current evidence-base and expert input. IPETT assesses both technical and non-technical skills. The technical component covers skills in the areas of clinical assessment, airway and breathing, cardiovascular, and drugs. The non-technical component is based on the validated NOTECHS tool and covers communication and interaction, cooperation and team skills, leadership and managerial skills, and decision-making. The reliability (internal consistency), content validity (inter-correlations between different skills) and concurrent validity (correlations between global technical and non-technical scores) of IPETT were prospectively evaluated in 45 simulated paediatric crises carried out in a PICU with anaesthetic and paediatric trainees (N=52). Non-parametric analyses were carried out. Significance was set at P<0.05.


Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients were overall acceptable for the technical (alpha range=0.638-0.810) and good for the non-technical (alpha range=0.701-0.899) component of IPETT. The median inter-skill correlation was rho=0.564 and rho=0.549 for the technical and non-technical components, respectively. These indicate good content validity, as the skills were inter-related but not redundant. We also demonstrate a correlation between the global technical and non-technical scores (rho=0.471) - all Ps<0.05 during the assessments.


IPETT offers a psychometrically viable and feasible to use tool in the context of paediatric emergencies training. This study shows that assessment of technical and non-technical skills in combination may offer a more clinically relevant model for training in paediatric emergencies. Further validation should aim to demonstrate skill retention over time and skill transfer from simulation-based training to real emergencies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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