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Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov;16(6):1000-3. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.103020.

Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India.



Hypomagnesemia is reported in type 2 diabetes; magnesium deficiency may play a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and altered insulin function.


To assess the incidence of hypomagnesemia among noncritically ill patients of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the relation of hypomagnesemia to glycemic control and various long-term complications of diabetes mellitus.


One hundred and fifty, noncritically ill (APACHE score < 10) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, who were admitted in the Departments of Medicine and Endocrinology, GMCH for uncontrolled hyperglycemia and/or various diabetic complications were studied. Serum magnesium was assessed at admission and rechecked in those found to be deficient.


Hypomagnesemia (Se magnesium < 1.6 mg/dl) was documented in 17 (11.33%) patients with a female:male ratio of 9:8. Mean HbA1c was 11.9% in the hypomagnesemic patients compared with 9.8% in controls (P =0.0016). Retinopathy, microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, foot ulceration, and neuropathy was present in 64%, 47%, 17.64%, 58.8%, and 82.35%, respectively, of the patients with hypomagnesemia as compared with 45.8% (P =0.118), 38.34% (P =0.704),15.03% (P =0.566), 22.55% (P =0.011) and 82.7% (P =0.976) without hypomagnesemia. Coronary artery disease was less common in the hypomagnesemia group (17.6% vs 39%), but comparable in the subgroup < 50 years (27% vs 25%) (P =0.796).


Hypomagnesemia in diabetes was associated with poorer glycemic control, retinopathy, nephropathy, and foot ulcers.


Diabetic complications; glycemic control; hypomagnesemia; type 2 diabetes

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