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J Biomed Opt. 2012 Oct;17(10):101512. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.10.101512.

The influence of nanodiamond on the oxygenation states and micro rheological properties of human red blood cells in vitro.

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Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan.


Nanodiamond has been proven to be biocompatible and proposed for various biomedical applications. Recently, nanometer-sized diamonds have been demonstrated as an effective Raman/fluorescence probe for bio-labeling, as well as, for drug delivery. Bio-labeling/drug delivery can be extended to the human blood system, provided one understands the interaction between nanodiamonds and the blood system. Here, the interaction of nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with human red blood cells (RBC) in vitro is discussed. Measurements have been facilitated using Raman spectroscopy, laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser diffractometry (ektacytometry). Data on cell viability and hemolytic analysis are also presented. Results indicate that the nanodiamonds in the studied condition do not cause hemolysis, and the cell viability is not affected. Importantly, the oxygenation/deoxygenation process was not found to be altered when nanodiamonds interacted with the RBC. However, the nanodiamond can affect some RBC properties such as deformability and aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. These results suggest that the nanodiamond can be used as an effective bio-labeling and drug delivery tool in ambient conditions, without complicating the blood's physiological conditions. However, controlling the blood properties including deformability of RBCs and rheological properties of blood is necessary during treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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