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Crit Care Med. 2013 Jan;41(1):120-32. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318265f653.

Inflammatory role of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in an experimental model of toxic smoke inhalation injury.

Author information

1
Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The molecular mechanisms underlying lung inflammation in toxic smoke inhalation injury are unknown. We investigated the signaling pathway responsible for the induction of interleukin 8 by wood smoke extract in lung epithelial cells and lung inflammation induced by wood smoke exposure in mice.

DESIGN:

A randomized, controlled study.

SETTING:

A research laboratory.

INTERVENTIONS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells to wood smoke extract sequentially activated NADPH oxidase and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species level; activated AMP-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase (two mitogen-activated protein kinases), and nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 (two transcription factors); and induced interleukin-8. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation with apocynin or siRNA targeting p47(phox ) (a subunit of NADPH oxidase) attenuated the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species level, AMP-activated protein kinase activation, and interleukin-8 induction. Removal of intracellular reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-cysteine reduced the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase, and interleukin-8 induction. Prevention of AMP-activated protein kinase activation by Compound C or AMP-activated protein kinase siRNA lessened the activation of Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, nuclear factor-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 and interleukin-8 induction. Inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by inhibitors reduced the activation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 and interleukin-8 induction. Abrogation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 activation by inhibitors attenuated the interleukin-8 induction. Additionally, acute exposure of mice to wood smoke promoted AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (an interleukin-8 homolog) in lung epithelial cells and lungs and lung inflammation, all of which were reduced by Compound C treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

Interleukin-8 induction by wood smoke extract in lung epithelial cells is mediated by novel NADPH oxidase-dependent, reactive oxygen species-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase signaling with Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase as the downstream kinases and nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 as the downstream transcription factors. This AMP-activated protein kinase signaling is likely important for inducing lung inflammation with toxic smoke exposure in mice.

PMID:
23222262
DOI:
10.1097/CCM.0b013e318265f653
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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