Send to

Choose Destination
Trends Ecol Evol. 2013 Apr;28(4):219-29. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2012.10.020. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Complex cocktails: the evolutionary novelty of venoms.

Author information

Molecular Ecology and Evolution Group, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, LL57 2UW, UK.


Venoms have evolved on numerous occasions throughout the animal kingdom. These 'biochemical weapon systems' typically function to facilitate, or protect the producing animal from, predation. Most venomous animals remain unstudied despite venoms providing model systems for investigating predator-prey interactions, molecular evolution, functional convergence, and novel targets for pharmaceutical discovery. Through advances in 'omic' technologies, venom composition data have recently become available for several venomous lineages, revealing considerable complexity in the processes responsible for generating the genetic and functional diversity observed in many venoms. Here, we review these recent advances and highlight the ecological and evolutionary novelty of venom systems.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center