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Fertil Steril. 2013 Mar 1;99(3):718-24. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.10.052. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

The treatment of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age.

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1
University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920, USA. ekim@utmck.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To review the mechanisms of T replacement therapy's inhibition of spermatogenesis and current therapeutic approaches in reproductive aged men.

DESIGN:

Review of published literature.

SETTING:

PubMed search from 1990-2012.

PATIENT(S):

PubMed search from 1990-2012.

INTERVENTION(S):

A literature review was performed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Semen analysis and pregnancy outcomes, time to recovery of spermatogenesis, serum and intratesticular T levels.

RESULT(S):

Exogenous T suppresses intratesticular T production, which is an absolute prerequisite for normal spermatogenesis. Therapies that protect the testis involve hCG therapy or selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators, but may also include low-dose hCG with exogenous T. Off-label use of selective ER modulators, such as clomiphene citrate (CC), are effective for maintaining T production long term and offer the convenience of representing a safe, oral therapy. At present, routine use of aromatase inhibitors is not recommended based on a lack of long-term data.

CONCLUSION(S):

Exogenous T supplementation decreases sperm production. Studies of hormonal contraception indicate that most men have a return of normal sperm production within 1 year after discontinuation. Clomiphene citrate is a safe and effective therapy for men who desire to maintain future potential fertility. Although less frequently used in the general population, hCG therapy with or without T supplementation represents an alternative treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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