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J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Jan 9;61(1):84-9. doi: 10.1021/jf304971k. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Analysis of bisphenol A, nonylphenol, and natural estrogens in vegetables and fruits using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

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Indian River Research and Education Center, University of Florida/IFAS, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945-3138, United States.


Bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and steroidal estrogens in vegetables and fruits were analyzed using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Isotope dilution standards were spiked before the extraction to account for extraction inefficiency and loss of analytes during sample workup. Recoveries were >90% for all of the compounds in each matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 μg kg(-1), whereas the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 μg kg(-1). All analytes can be monitored in a single GC-MS/MS run with a run time of 20 min. Occurrence of these endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vegetables and fruits from local markets was observed using the established analytical method. BPA was detected in all vegetable and fruit samples, ranging from 0.2 ± 0.1 to 9.0 ± 4.9 μg kg(-1), indicating significant exposure potential for humans. NP was detected in pumpkin, sweet potato, citrus, and apple samples. The concentration of 4-n-NP ranged from 5.3 ± 2.4 to 18.9 ± 8.0 μg kg(-1), whereas that of 4-NP ranged from 5.1 ± 2.6 to 12.2 ± 3.6 μg kg(-1). Concentrations of 17-β-estradiol in vegetables and fruits ranged from 1.3 ± 0.4 to 2.2 ± 1.0 μg kg(-1) except those in tomato and strawberry, in which no 17-β-estradiol was detected. The estimated daily intake of 17-β-estradiol was beyond the recommended acceptable daily intake (ADI) for children as recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

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