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Postepy Biochem. 2012;58(1):69-78.

[The role of LSF/Grainyhead transcription factors in development and function of epidermal barrier in animals].

[Article in Polish]

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Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 3 Pasteur St. 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.


The LSF/Grainyhead family of transcription factors consists of proteins whose structure and functions have been preserved in the course of eukaryotic evolution--from primitive unicellular life forms to complex multicellular organisms. In the latter, these factors display tissue specificity and are active mainly in the covering epithelium. The roles of GRH factors are associated with regulation of expression of genes essential for correct differentiation and functioning of the epithelia of ectodermal origin. The Grh gene expression profiles are diverse and variable, especially during embryonic development. Research on the role of GRHL transcription factors is carried out on cellular and organismal level. In experimental animals, aberrant Grh gene expression leads to many diseases, including failure of epidermal wound healing and neural tube defects. Changes of these genes' expression levels are also linked to carcinogenesis. GRHL transcription factors participate in signaling pathways involved in cellular proliferation and apoptosis.

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