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J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jul;68(7):780-92. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gls238. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

Aging exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue in mice: a paracrine mechanism contributing to vascular redox dysregulation and inflammation.

Author information

1
Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma HSC, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Abstract

Obesity in the elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that aging exacerbates obesity-induced inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue, which contributes to increased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in a paracrine manner. To test this hypothesis, we assessed changes in the secretome, reactive oxygen species production, and macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue of young (7 month old) and aged (24 month old) high-fat diet-fed obese C57BL/6 mice. High-fat diet-induced vascular reactive oxygen species generation significantly increased in aged mice, which was associated with exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. In young animals, high-fat diet-induced obesity promoted oxidative stress in the perivascular adipose tissue, which was associated with a marked proinflammatory shift in the profile of secreted cytokines and chemokines. Aging exacerbated obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and significantly increased macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue. Using cultured arteries isolated from young control mice, we found that inflammatory factors secreted from the perivascular fat tissue of obese aged mice promote significant prooxidative and proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in the vascular wall, mimicking the aging phenotype. Overall, our findings support an important role for localized perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in exacerbation of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in aging, an effect that likely enhances the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases from obesity in the elderly individuals.

KEYWORDS:

Adiposity; Diabetes; Fat; Metabolic disease; Obesity

PMID:
23213032
PMCID:
PMC3674713
DOI:
10.1093/gerona/gls238
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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