Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012 Oct;63(5):445-55.

Additional effects of bisphenol A and paraben on the induction of calbindin-D(9K) and progesterone receptor via an estrogen receptor pathway in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

Author information

Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.


There are concerns about the combined estrogenic effects of chemicals since mixtures of these chemicals exist in our environment. This study investigated potential additional interactions between bisphenol A (BPA) and isobutylparaben (IBP), which are major xenoestrogens used in the manufacture of plastics, cosmetics, drugs, and other products. The combined effects of these two chemicals were analyzed by measuring the expression of calbindin-D(9k) (CaBP-9k) in rat pituitary cancer GH3 cells. GH3 cells were treated with single and combination doses of both chemicals (BPA single doses: 10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M; IBP single doses: 10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M, and each of the BPA and IBP doses combined). Prior to treatment, cells were temporarily transfected with a plasmid containing an ERE-luciferase reporter gene. Luciferase activity was measured as an indicator of ER activation by 17β-estradiol (E2), BPA, and IBP. BPA (10(-5) M) combined with IBP (10(-7) M and 10(-6) M) induced a significant increase in the luciferase activity. Twenty-four hours after treatment, dose-dependent effects were observed in both single and combined dose groups, and several combination doses induced significant increases in the expression of CaBP-9k and progesterone receptor (PR) at both transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment with ICI 182,780, a pure estrogen antagonist, significantly reversed BPA- and IBP-induced CaBP-9k and PR upregulation in GH3 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that BPA and IBP may have additionally increased estrogenic potency via an estrogen receptor-mediated pathway.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences
    Loading ...
    Support Center