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Eur Heart J. 2013 May;34(19):1448-58. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs397. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies: bridging the gap between clinical phenotypes and final diagnosis. A position statement from the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases.

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The Heart Hospital, 16-18 Westmoreland Street, London W1G 8PH, UK.


In 2008, The ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases proposed an updated classification of cardiomyopathies based on morphological and functional phenotypes and subcategories of familial/genetic and non-familial/non-genetic disease. In this position statement, we propose a framework for the clinical approach to diagnosis in cardiomyopathies based on the recognition of diagnostic 'red flags' that can be used to guide rational selection of specialized tests including genetic analysis. The basic premise is that the adoption of a cardiomyopathy-specific mindset which combines conventional cardiological assessment with non-cardiac and molecular parameters increases diagnostic accuracy and thus improves advice and treatment for patients and families.


Cardiomyopathy; Diagnosis; Genotype; Phenotype

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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