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PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e50149. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050149. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

Multiple-level regulation of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production by the sigma regulator PsrA in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24.

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Department of Plant Pathology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.



Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 is a rhizospheric bacterium that aggressively colonizes the plant roots. It produces the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), which contributes to the protection of various crop plants against soil borne diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The biosynthesis of 2,4-DAPG is regulated at the transcriptional level in the expression of the phlACBD operon as well as at the posttranscriptional level by the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of such regulation is not clear.


In this study, we identified a binding site for the sigma regulator PsrA in the promoter region of the phlA gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments revealed direct and specific binding of PsrA to the phlA promoter region. Consistent with the fact that its binding site locates within the promoter region of phlA, PsrA negatively regulates phlA expression, and its inactivation led to significant increase in 2,4-DAPG production. Interestingly, PsrA also activates the expression of the sigma factor RpoS, which negatively regulates 2,4-DAPG production by inducing the expression of the RNA-binding protein RsmA.


These results suggest that PsrA is an important regulator that modulates 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

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