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Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2013 Mar;230(3):243-6. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1327929. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

[Genetic diagnostic testing in inherited retinal dystrophies].

[Article in German]

Author information

1
Department für Augenheilkunde, Forschungsinstitut für Augenheilkunde, Tübingen, Germany. susanne.kohl@uni-tuebingen.de

Abstract

Inherited retinal dystrophies are clinically and genetically highly heterogeneous. They can be divided according to the clinical phenotype and course of the disease, as well as the underlying mode of inheritance. Isolated retinal dystrophies (i.e., retinitis pigmentosa, Leber's congenital amaurosis, cone and cone-rod dystrophy, macular dystrophy, achromatopsia, congenital stationary nightblindness) and syndromal forms (i.e., Usher syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome) can be differentiated. To date almost 180 genes and thousands of distinct mutations have been identified that are responsible for the different forms of these blinding illnesses. Until recently, there was no adequate diagnostic genetic testing available. With the development of the next generation sequencing technologies, a comprehensive genetic screening analysis for all known genes for inherited retinal dystrophies has been established at reasonable costs and in appropriate turn-around times. Depending on the primary clinical diagnosis and the presumed mode of inheritance, different diagnostic panels can be chosen for genetic testing. Statistics show that in 55-80 % of the cases the genetic defect of the inherited retinal dystrophy can be identified with this approach, depending on the initial clinical diagnosis. The aim of any genetic diagnostics is to define the genetic cause of a given illness within the affected patient and family and thereby i) confirm the clinical diagnosis, ii) provide targeted genetic testing in family members, iii) enable therapeutic intervention, iv) give a prognosis on disease course and progression and v) in the long run provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches and personalised medicine.

PMID:
23208805
DOI:
10.1055/s-0032-1327929
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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